Several years ago I tried to register my compositions with SAMRO for the first time, and on the application form I noticed a section with the title “music publisher”. And of course, I didn’t know what it was because I was still familiarizing myself with music industry jargon.
So I phoned the samro office in Johannesburg and asked what music publishing was. The consultant gave me a short explanation without going into the details. But after that phone call, I had a basic understanding.
In this article I will explain to you what music publishing is and how it works. Although the blog post title ends with “South Africa“, but publishing works the same way irrespective of the country.
What is music publishing?
A music publisher can be an individual or an entity (an entity in most cases) responsible for managing and promoting the works of the composer or author and ensuring that all royalties are collected and paid to the client (artist).
It sounds simplistic right?
Well maybe not, so let’s go over the next point and I’ll show you how this works.
How music publishing works in South Africa
Just to be clear, I make reference to “South Africa” in the title again because I will be mentioning South African organisations in the following paragraphs.
Music publishers help composers and authors earn money by licensing the works to film and television production companies, advertising agencies and other media. Composers and authors in this context refer to music producers and songwriters.
Now you might be asking yourself “Isn’t that the record label’s job?”
Well not exactly and I’ll explain further.
It all depends on who holds the right to control the copyright. The record labels usually control and own the recordings (the master recording or masters in short) and the music publisher controls the rights to the composition and lyrics.
But it’s not uncommon for the record label to wear both hats. If that is the case it means they would control both copyrights.
If you are still trying to understand what I just said, I would recommend that you read the previous blog post first on how you can own your masters in order to get clarity.
In South Africa CAPASSO (Composers, Authors, and Publishers Association) is responsible for administering what is called Mechanical Rights.
Mechanical royalties are paid to songwriters and composers each time a record is reproduced, downloaded (including ringtones), streamed and printed (sheet music or lyrics).
Let me give you a basic example. For each vinyl or CD pressed/manufactured, a mechanical royalty has to be paid to the songwriter.
However in order to receive these types of royalties, your music publisher (or you) has to be registered with CAPASSO.
But what about SAMRO?
SAMRO’s role is to administer the performing rights only.
And to give you an example, if your songs are playlisted on radio, national television or performed at a bar, SAMRO collects license fees from the music users and distributes them as royalties to composers and authors.
How music publishers make money
Music publishers do not charge you money upfront. Instead, they render the service on a commission basis and so they can only be paid when you get paid.
The typical percentage split is a minimum of 33.33% but a 50/50 agreement is also common but this varies from publisher to publisher.
Where can I find a music publisher in South Africa?
Below is a list of my top 5 reputable music publishers in South Africa and I have also included website links.
- Sheer Music Publishing (Pty) Ltd
- Sony/ATV,Songwriters Publishers
- Synchro Music
- Geoff Paynter Music Publishing
- Gallo Music Publishers
Whether you are music producer, songwriter, label owner or artist manager, music publishing is one subject that you have to understand well.
The music industry can be confusing I know and there’s just so much that you have to know. But if you want to have successful and sustainable music career then you should arm yourself with knowledge.
If you have any questions and thoughts, please do comment below.